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习近平在联合国教科文组织总部的演讲

习近平在联合国演讲

在联合国教科文组织总部的演讲

Speech at UNESCO Headquarters

中华人民共和国主席 习近平

H.E. Xi Jinping President of the People’s Republic of China

2014年3月27日,巴黎

Paris, 27 March 2014

尊敬的博科娃总干事,女士们,先生们,朋友们:

Your Excellency Madame Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO,Ladies and Gentlemen,Dear Friends,

大家好!有机会来到联合国教科文组织总部,感到十分高兴。首先,我谨对博科娃女士再次当选教科文组织总干事,表示衷心的祝贺!对教科文组织为推动人类文明交流互鉴作出的卓越贡献,表示诚挚的敬意!

Good morning. It gives me great pleasure to have an opportunity of visiting the UNESCO headquarters. Let me begin by offering Madame Bokova my heartfelt congratulations on her re-election as the Director-General of the Organization and paying my sincere tribute to UNESCO for the extraordinary contribution it has made for greater exchanges and mutual learning among human civilizations.

教科文组织诞生于69年前,那时世界反法西斯战争硝烟刚刚散去。面对战争给人类带来的惨烈后果,人类又一次反思战争与和平的真谛。千百年来,人类都梦想着持久和平,但战争始终像一个幽灵一样伴随着人类发展历程。此时此刻,世界上很多孩子正生活在战乱的惊恐之中。我们必须作出努力,让战争远离人类,让全世界的孩子们都在和平的阳光下幸福成长。

UNESCO was born 69 years ago when the smoke of the World War against Fascism had barely dissipated. The grisly horror of war forced mankind once again to reflect on the nature of war and peace. Throughout the centuries, people have yearned for lasting peace, but war, like a haunting ghost, has been accompanying the journey of human progress every step of the way. As we speak, many children on this planet are subjected to the horror of armed conflicts. We must do our utmost to keep war as far away as possible from mankind so that children across the world can grow up happily under the sunshine of peace.

在教科文组织总部大楼前的石碑上,用多种语言镌刻着这样一句话:“战争起源于人之思想,故务需于人之思想中筑起保卫和平之屏障。

The stone wall at the entrance to the UNESCO headquarters carries the inscription of one single message in several languages: Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed.

只要世界人民在心灵中坚定了和平理念、扬起了和平风帆,就能形成防止和反对战争的强大力量。人们希望通过文明交流、平等教育、普及科学,消除隔阂、偏见、仇视,播撒和平理念的种子。这就是教科文组织成立的初衷。

As long as the idea of peace can strike deep roots and the sail of peace can be hoisted in the hearts and minds of people all over the world, a strong defense will be constructed to prevent and stop war. People hoped to promote inter-civilization exchanges, equality of educational opportunities and scientific literacy in order to dispel estrangement, prejudice and hatred, and spread the seeds for the idea of peace. This is precisely why UNESCO was established in the first place.

这样一种期待,这样一种憧憬,是我们今天依然要坚守的。不仅要坚守,而且要通过跨国界、跨时空、跨文明的教育、科技、文化活动,让和平理念的种子在世界人民心中生根发芽,让我们共同生活的这个星球生长出一片又一片和平的森林。

The aspiration and vision as such deserve our renewed commitment. Not only so, but we must also step up cross-border, cross-time-and-space and cross-civilization activities in education, science, technology and culture to spread the seeds of the idea of peace far and wide so that they will sprout, take root and grow in the hearts and minds of the world’s people, and provide the planet we share with more and more forests of peace.

自1945年成立以来,教科文组织忠实履行使命,在增进世界人民相互了解和信任、推动不同文明交流互鉴方面进行了不懈努力。中国高度重视同教科文组织的合作,愿意加大参与教科文组织的各项活动。为体现对非洲的支持和帮助,我们决定把通过教科文组织向包括非洲国家在内的发展中国家提供的长城奖学金名额由每年25人扩大为75人,我们还将同教科文组织一道把援助非洲信托基金的活动继续开展下去。

Since its inception in 1945, UNESCO has faithfully lived up to its mandate and worked untiringly to enhance trust and understanding among the world’s peoples and promote exchanges and mutual learning among the various civilizations. China attaches great importance to its cooperation with UNESCO and stands ready to expand its participation in UNESCO activities. We have decided to expand the Great Wall Fellowship, a scheme that provides scholarship to developing countries, African countries included via UNESCO, from 25 to 75 people every year to demonstrate China’s support and assistance for Africa. We will also continue to work within the framework of the UNESCO trust fund to help Africa.

女士们、先生们、朋友们!

Ladies and Gentlemen,Dear Friends,

文明因交流而多彩,文明因互鉴而丰富。文明交流互鉴,是推动人类文明进步和世界和平发展的重要动力。

Civilizations have become richer and more colorful with exchanges and mutual learning. Such exchanges and mutual learning form an important drive for human progress and global peace and development.

推动文明交流互鉴,需要秉持正确的态度和原则。我认为,最重要的是坚持以下几点。

To promote exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations, we must adopt a right approach with some important principles. They, in my view, contain the following:

第一,文明是多彩的,人类文明因多样才有交流互鉴的价值。阳光有七种颜色,世界也是多彩的。一个国家和民族的文明是一个国家和民族的集体记忆。人类在漫长的历史长河中,创造和发展了多姿多彩的文明。从茹毛饮血到田园农耕,从工业革命到信息社会,构成了波澜壮阔的文明图谱,书写了激荡人心的文明华章。

First, civilizations have come in different colors, and such diversity has made exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations relevant and valuable. Just as the sunlight has seven colors, our world is a place of dazzling colors. A civilization is the collective memory of a country or a nation. Throughout history, mankind have created and developed many colorful civilizations, from earlier days of primitive hunting to the period of agriculture, and from booming industrial revolution to the information society. Together, they present a magnificent genetic map of the exciting march of human civilizations.

“一花独放不是春,百花齐放春满园。”如果世界上只有一种花朵,就算这种花朵再美,那也是单调的。不论是中华文明,还是世界上存在的其他文明,都是人类文明创造的成果。“A single flower does not make spring, while one hundred flowers in full blossom bring spring to the garden.” If there were only one kind of flower in the world, people will find it boring no matter how beautiful it is. Be it the Chinese civilization, or other civilizations in the world, they are all fruits of human progress.

我参观过法国卢浮宫,也参观过中国故宫博物院,它们珍藏着千万件艺术珍品,吸引人们眼球的正是其展现的多样文明成果。文明交流互鉴不应该以独尊某一种文明或者贬损某一种文明为前提。中国人在2000多年前就认识到了“物之不齐,物之情也”的道理。推动文明交流互鉴,可以丰富人类文明的色彩,让各国人民享受更富内涵的精神生活、开创更有选择的未来。

I have visited the Louvre Museum in France and the Palace Museum in China, both of which house millions of pieces of art treasures. They are attractive because they are able to present the richness of diverse civilizations. Exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations must not be built on the exclusive praise or belittling of one particular civilization. As early as over 2,000 years ago, the Chinese people came to recognize that “it is only natural for things to be different”. Greater exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations can further enrich the colors of various civilizations and the cultural life of people, and open up still greater alternatives in the future.

第二,文明是平等的,人类文明因平等才有交流互鉴的前提。各种人类文明在价值上是平等的,都各有千秋,也各有不足。世界上不存在十全十美的文明,也不存在一无是处的文明,文明没有高低、优劣之分。

Second, civilizations are equal, and such equality has made exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations possible. All human civilizations are equal in terms of value. They all have their respective strengths and shortcomings. There is no perfect civilization in the world. Nor is there a civilization that is devoid of any merit. No one civilization can be judged superior to another.

我访问过世界上许多地方,最喜欢做的一件事情就是了解五大洲的不同文明,了解这些文明与其他文明的不同之处、独到之处,了解在这些文明中生活的人们的世界观、人生观、价值观。我到过代表古玛雅文明的奇琴伊察,也到过带有浓厚伊斯兰文明色彩的中亚古城撒马尔罕。我深深感到,要了解各种文明的真谛,必须秉持平等、谦虚的态度。如果居高临下对待一种文明,不仅不能参透这种文明的奥妙,而且会与之格格不入。历史和现实都表明,傲慢和偏见是文明交流互鉴的最大障碍。

I have visited many places in the world. The best thing I wanted to do is to learn about differing civilizations across the five continents, what make them different and unique, how their people think about the world and life and what they hold dear. I have visited Chichen Itza, a window on the ancient Maya civilization, and the Central Asian city of Samarkand, an epitome of the ancient Islamic civilization. It is my keenly-felt conviction that an attitude of equality and modesty is required if one wants to truly understand the various civilizations. Taking a condescending attitude toward a civilization cannot help anyone to appreciate its essence but may risk antagonizing it. Both history and reality show that pride and prejudice are two biggest obstacles to exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations.

第三,文明是包容的,人类文明因包容才有交流互鉴的动力。海纳百川,有容乃大。人类创造的各种文明都是劳动和智慧的结晶。每一种文明都是独 特的。在文明问题上,生搬硬套、削足适履不仅是不可能的,而且是十分有害的。一切文明成果都值得尊重,一切文明成果都要珍惜。

Third, civilizations are inclusive, and such inclusiveness has given exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations the needed drive to move forward. The ocean is vast for it refuses no rivers. All civilizations are crystallizations of mankind’s hard work and wisdom. Every civilization is unique. Copying other civilizations mechanically or blindly is like cutting one’s toes just to fit his shoes, which is not only impossible but also highly detrimental. All achievements of civilizations deserve our respect and must be treasured.

历史告诉我们,只有交流互鉴,一种文明才能充满生命力。只要秉持包容精神,就不存在什么“文明冲突”,就可以实现文明和谐。这就是中国人常说的:“萝卜青 菜,各有所爱。”

History also tells us that only by interacting with and learning from others can a civilization enjoy full vitality. If all civilizations can uphold inclusiveness, the so-called “clash of civilizations” will be out of the question and the harmony of civilizations will become reality. This is like what we Chinese often say, “radish or cabbage, each to his own delight.”

中华文明经历了5000多年的历史变迁,但始终一脉相承,积淀着中华民族最深层的精神追求,代表着中华民族独特的精神标识,为中华民族生生不息、发展壮大提供了丰厚滋养。中华文明是在中国大地上产生的文明,也是同其他文明不断交流互鉴而形成的文明。

Having gone through over 5,000 years of vicissitudes, the Chinese civilization has always kept to its original root. Unique in representing China spiritually, it contains some most profound pursuits of the Chinese nation and provides it with abundant nourishment for existence and development. Though born on the soil of China, it has come to its present form through constant exchanges and mutual learning with other civilizations.

公元前100多年,中国就开始开辟通往西域的丝绸之路。汉代张骞于公元前138年和119年两次出使西域,向西域传播了中华文化,也引进了葡萄、苜蓿、石榴、胡麻、芝麻等西域文化成果。西汉时期,中国的船队就到达了印度和斯里兰卡,用中国的丝绸换取了琉璃、珍珠等物品。中国唐代是中国历史上对外交流的活跃期。据史料记载,唐代中国通使交好的国家多达70多个,那时候的首都长安里来自各国的使臣、商人、留学生云集成群。这个大交流促进了中华文化远播世界,也促进了各国文化和物产传入中国。15世纪初,中国明代著名航海家郑和七次远洋航海,到了东南亚很多国家,一直抵达非洲东海岸的肯尼亚,留下了中国同沿途各国人民友好交往的佳话。明末清初,中国人积极学习现代科技知识,欧洲的天文学、医学、数学、几何学、地理学知识纷纷传入中国,开阔中国人的知识视野。之后,中外文明交流互鉴更是频繁展开,这其中有冲突、矛盾、疑惑、拒绝,但更多是学习、消化、融合、创新。

In the 2nd century B.C., China began working on the Silk Road leading to the Western Regions. In 138 B.C. and 119 B.C., Envoy Zhang Qian of the Han Dynasty made two trips to those regions, spreading the Chinese culture there and bringing into China grape, alfalfa, pomegranate, flax, sesame and other products. In the Western Han Dynasty, China’s merchant fleets sailed as far as India and Sri Lanka where they traded China’s silk for colored glaze, pearls and other products. The Tang Dynasty saw dynamic interactions between China and other countries. According to historical documents, the dynasty exchanged envoys with over 70 countries, and Chang’an, the capital of Tang, bustled with envoys, merchants and students from other countries. Exchanges of such a magnitude helped the spread of the Chinese culture to the rest of the world and the introduction into China of the cultures and products from other countries. In the early 15th century, Zheng He, the famous navigator of China’s Ming Dynasty, made seven expeditions to the Western Seas, reaching many Southeast Asian countries and even Kenya on the east coast of Africa. These trips left behind many stories of friendly exchanges between the people of China and countries along the route. In late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, the Chinese people began to learn modern science and technology with great zeal, as the European knowledge of astronomy, medicine, mathematics, geometry and geography were being introduced into China, which helped broaden the horizon of the Chinese people. Thereafter, exchanges and mutual learning between the Chinese civilization and other civilizations became more frequent. There were indeed conflicts, frictions, bewilderment and denial in this process. But the more dominant features of the period were learning, digestion, integration and innovation.

佛教产生于古代印度,但传入中国后,经过长期演化,佛教同中国儒家文化和道家文化融合发展,最终形成了具有中国特色的佛教文化,给中国人的宗教信仰、哲学观念、文学艺术、礼仪习俗等留下了深刻影响。中国唐代玄奘西行取经,历尽磨难,体现的是中国人学习域外文化的坚韧精神。根据他的故事演绎的神话小说《西游记》,我想大家都知道。中国人根据中华文化发展了佛教思想,形成了独特的佛教理论,而且使佛教从中国传播到了日本、韩国、东南亚等地。

Buddhism originated in ancient India. After it was introduced into China, the religion went through an extended period of integrated development with the indigenous Confucianism and Taoism and finally became the Buddhism with Chinese characteristics, thus making a deep impact on the religious belief, philosophy, literature, art, etiquette and customs of the Chinese people. Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsang), the Tang monk who endured untold sufferings as he went on a pilgrimage to the west for Buddhist scriptures, gave full expression to the determination and fortitude of the Chinese people to learn from other cultures. I am sure that you have all heard about the Chinese classics Journey to the West, which was written on the basis of his stories. The Chinese people have enriched Buddhism and developed some special Buddhist thoughts in the light of Chinese culture, and helped it to spread from China to Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and beyond.

2000多年来,佛教、伊斯兰教、基督教等先后传入中国,中国音乐、绘画、文学等也不断吸纳外来文明的优长。中国传统画法同西方油画融合创新,形成了独具魅力的中国写意油画,徐悲鸿等大师的作品受到广泛赞赏。中国的造纸术、火药、印刷术、指南针四大发明带动了世界变革,推动了欧洲文艺复兴。中国哲学、文学、医药、丝绸、瓷器、茶叶等传入西方,渗入西方民众日常生活之中。《马可·波罗游记》令无数人对中国心向往之。

In the course of some two thousand years and more, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity have been introduced into China successively, which allowed the country’s music, painting and literature to benefit from the advantages of other civilizations. China’s freehand oil painting is an innovative combination of China’s traditional painting and the Western oil painting, and the works of Xu Beihong and other masters have been widely acclaimed. China’s Four Great Inventions, namely, papermaking, gunpowder, movable-type printing and compass, led to changes in the world, including the European Renaissance. China’s philosophy, literature, medicine, silk, porcelain and tea reached the West and became part of people’s daily life. The Travels of Marco Polo generated a widespread interest in China.

大家都知道,中国有秦俑,人们称之为“地下的军团”。法国总统希拉克参观之后说:“不看金字塔,不算真正到过埃及。不看秦俑,不算真正到过中国。”1987年,这一尘封了2000多年的中华文化珍品被列入世界文化遗产。中国还有大量文明成果被教科文组织列入世界文化遗产、世界非物质文化遗产、世界记忆遗产名录。这里,我要对教科文组织为保存和传播中华文明作出的贡献,表示衷心的感谢!

Many people know about the terracotta warriors, “the buried legions of Emperor Qin”. After his visit to the site, President Chirac of France said that a visit to Egypt will not be complete without seeing the pyramids, and that a visit to China will not be complete without seeing the terracotta warriors. In 1987, this national treasure of China, shrouded in secrecy for over two thousand years, was put on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list. There are many more proud Chinese achievements that have been included in the World Cultural Heritage list, the World Intangible Cultural Heritage list and the Memory of the World list. Here, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to UNESCO for its contribution to the preservation and dissemination of the Chinese civilization.

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