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詹姆斯卡梅隆2010年回顾自己导演之路的演讲:失败是一个选项,但畏惧不是

I grew up on a steady diet of science fiction. In high school I took a bus to school an hour each way every day. And I was always absorbed in a book, science fiction book, which took my mind to other worlds, and satisfied, in a narrative form, this insatiable sense of curiosity that I had.

我是看科幻小说长大的。高中时,我每天乘公共汽车上下学,上学和放学都要 在公共汽车上花费一个小时。我在车上经常看科幻小说。这些书将我的思想带到了 另一个世界,它们以一种叙述性的方式,满足我永无止境的好奇心。

And you know that curiosity also manifested itself in the fact that whenever I wasn’t in school I was out in the woods, hiking and taking "samples," frogs and snakes and bugs and pond water, and bringing it back, looking at it under the microscope. You know, I was a real science geek. But it was all about trying to understand the world, understand the limits of possibility.

每当我不上课在树林中散步和寻找标本时,我总是会充满好奇,我会将青蛙、 蛇、臭虫或者池塘里的水作为标本带回家放在显微镜下观察。你知道,我真的是一 个科学迷。我总是试图探索这个世界,想找到它可能存在的边界。

And my love of science fiction actually seemed to mirrored in the world around me, because what was happening, this was in the late 60’s,we were going to the moon, we were exploring the deep oceans. Jacques Cousteau was coming into our living rooms with his amazing specials that showed us animals and places and a wondrous world that we could never really have previously imagined. So, that seemed to resonate with the whole science fiction part of it.

我对科幻小说的热爱或许是那个时代的写照。上世纪60年代末期,人类登上了 月球,去探索深海。雅克寇斯托带着他别具一格的节目出现在电视荧屏上,让我们在客厅里便可以看到不同的动物和场所以及我们之前从未想象过的神奇的世界.这个节目与科幻小说一样可以引起我的兴趣。

And I was an artist. I could paint. And I found that because there weren’t video games and this saturation of CG movies and all of this imagery in the media landscape, I had to create these images in my head. You know, we all did, as kids having to read a book,and through the author’s description put something on the movie screen in our heads. And so, my response to this was to paint, to draw alien creatures, alien worlds, robots, spaceships, all that stuff. I was endlessly getting busted in math class doodling behind the textbook. That was, the creativity had to find its outlet somehow.

我是一名艺术家。我会绘画。我发现因为媒体界没有游戏并且像CG电影以 及类似想象类作品的缺失,使我不得不根据自己头脑中的想象进行创作。你知道, 实际上我们都曾经这样做过,当孩子们读一本书的时候,他们会根据作者的描述, 在自己头脑中形成一些画面。而我对此的反应是将我头脑中的画面描绘下来,画外 星人,画外星世界,画机器人、宇宙飞船等等类似的东西。我甚至会上数学课时在 课本的背面乱涂乱画,为此经常导致数学成绩不理想。所有以上的种种行为,我想 归咎于我的好奇心总想找到某种方式发泄吧。

And an interesting thing happened, the Jacques Cousteau shows actually got me very excited about the fact that there was an alien world right here on Earth. I might really go to an alien world on a spaceship someday. That seemed pretty darn unlikely. But that was a world I could really go to, right here on Earth, that was as rich and exotic as anything that I had imagined from reading these books.

一件有趣的事情发生了:雅克寇斯托的节目真的使我相信地球上存在一个外 星世界,并且这使我很兴奋。某天,我可能真的会乘太空飞船去外星世界。这看起 来是不可能的。但是在地球上确实有一个地方我可以去,那个地方既富饶又充满异 国情趣,和我读那本书时出现在头脑中的地方一样。

So, I decided I was going to become a scuba diver at the age of 15. And the only problem with that was that I lived in a little village in Canada, 600 miles from the nearest ocean. But I didn’t let that daunt me. I pestered my father until he finally found a scuba class in Buffalo, New York,right across the border from where we live. And I actually got certified in a pool in a YMCA in the dead of winter in Buffalo, New York. And I didn5t see the ocean, a real ocean, for another two years, until we moved to California.

所以在15岁时,我决定成为一名潜水员。而当时实现梦想唯一的问题是我生活在加拿大的一个小山村,离最近的海有6英里远。但我并没有让这成为我梦想的 障碍。我纠缠着父亲在边境对岸的美国纽约州布法罗找到了一个潜水培训班。于是 我便在布法罗的一个泳池里获得了潜水证书,那时布法罗正值隆冬。我从未见过大 海,直到两年后,我们全家搬到加州,我才第一次有机会看到真正的大海。

Since then, in the intervening 40 years, I’ve spent about 3,000 hours underwater, And 500 hours of that was in submersibles. And I’ve learned that deep ocean environment, and even the shallow oceans, are so rich with amazing life that really is beyond our imagination. Nature’s imagination is so boundless compared to our own meager human imagination. I still, to this day, stand in absolute awe of what I see when I make these dives. And my love affair with the ocean is ongoing, and just as strong as it ever was.

在这之后的40年里,我在海底大约总共花了3万个小时,在潜水艇里花了50fKh 小时。我了解到不管是深水海域还是浅水海域都蕴藏着神奇的生物,这些神奇的生 物都是我们想象不到的。比起我们的想象力,自然的想象力完全没有边界。现在我 潜水时仍然对我所看到的一切很敬畏。我对海洋的热爱一直未中断,并且和最初时 一样强烈。

But, when I chose a career, as an adult, it was film making. And that seemed to be the best way to reconcile this urge I had to tell stories, with my urges to create images. And I was, as a kid, constantly drawing comic books, and so on. So, film making was the way to put pictures and stories together. And that made sense. And of course the stories that I chose to tell were science fiction stories: Terminator Aliens and The Abyss. And with The Abyss, I was putting together my love of underwater and diving, with film making. So, you know, merging the two passions.

但是,当我长大后选择职业的时候,我却选择了电影制作。我喜欢讲故事,画 图画,电影看起来是最合适我的工作。而且我童年时也一直在坚持画漫画。电影制 作是将图片与故事融合在一起,那样很有意义。当然我所要讲述的是科幻故事,像 《终结者》、《外星人》、《深渊》等等。制作《深渊》时,我将对潜水的热爱和电影融合在了一起。你知道就是将两种热爱之情融合在一起。

Something interesting came out of The Abyss, which was to create this kind of liquid water creature, we actually embraced computer generated animation, CG. And this resulted in the first soft-surface character, CG animation that was ever in a movie. And even though the film didn’t make any money, barely broke even, I should say, I witnessed something amazing, which is that the audience, the global audience, was mesmerized by this apparent magic.

制作《深渊》时,发生了一些很有趣的事情,那就是当我们要塑造一个水状的 生物时,我们使用了 “计算机生成动画” CG。CG的应用产生了电影历史上第一个软 表面、电脑制成的形象。虽然这部电影使公司差点亏本,但是我要说,我发现全世 界的观众都为这种新技术所震撼。

You know, it’s Arthur Clarke’s law that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. They were seeing something magical. And so that got me very excited. And I thought, “Wow,this is something that needs to be embraced into the cinematic art.”So,with Terminator 2,which was my next film, we took that much farther. Working with ILM, we created the liquid metal dude in that film. The success hung in the balance on whether that effect would work. And it did. And we created magic again. And we had the same result with an audience. Although we did make a little more money on that one.

你知道,根据亚瑟克拉克定律——任何高难度的技术和魔法没有什么区别, 很多人觉得自己看到了一些“神奇”的东西Q这使我感到很兴奋。我想CG应该被用 到电影艺术中去。所以,在我接下来的电影《终结者2》中,我们把这种技术又推近 了一步,与光影魔幻产业公司合作,我们创造了一个液态金属人。起先还对是否会 成功惴惴不安,可是结果真的成功了。我们又一次创造了奇迹。这部电影给观众带 来了同样的震撼。尽管那部影片确实没为我们赚到钱。

So,drawing a line through those two dots of experience, came to,this is going to be a whole new world, this was a whole new world of creativity for film artists. So, I started a company with Stan Winston, my good friend Stan Winston, who is the premier creature designer at that time,and it was called Digital Domain. And the concept of the company was that we would leap-frog past the analog processes of optical printers and so on, and we would go right to digital production. And we actually did that and it gave us a competitive advantage for a while.

因此,从制作电影的两次经历中我得出了一些经验:我们的世界将会是一个全新 的世界,对于电影艺术家们,将会是一个充满想象力的全新的世界。于是我和好友斯坦温斯顿创立了一家公司,斯坦温斯顿是当时首屈一指的生物设计师。我们的公 司取名叫“数字领域”。公司的理念是要跳过普通的电影制作和模拟过程直接进入数 字电影制作。我们也是这么做的,这也使得我们在一段时间内有了一定的优势。

But we found ourselves lagging in the mid 90’s in the creature and character design stuff that we had actually founded the company to do. So,I wrote this piece called Avatar, which was meant to absolutely push the envelope of visual effects, of CG effects, beyond, with realistic human emotive characters generated in CG And the main characters would all be in CG And the world would be in CG. And I was told by the folks at my company that we weren’t going to be able to do this for a while.

但在90年代中期,我发现我们在人物和性格设计上有些落后了。而我们的公司 的主要业务就是人物和性格设计。因此,我写《阿凡达》这部电影就是想要推动整 个视觉体验以及动画效果的进步。让现实人物的情感在电影上诠释,而电影中的主 要人物具有动画效果。电影中的全部画面具有动画效果。但一开始,员工告诉我, 他们还没有能力做到这样。

So, I shelved it, and I made this other movie about a big ship that sinks. (Laughter) You know, I went and pitched it to the studio as “‘Romeo and Juliet,on a ship.” It’s going to be this epic romance, passionate film. Secretly, what I wanted to do was I wanted to dive to the real wreck of “Titanic.” And that’s why I made the movie. (Applause) And that’s the truth. Now, the studio didn’t know that. But I convinced them. I said, “We’re going to dive to the wreck. We’re going to film it for real. We’ll be using it in the opening of the film. It will be really important. It will be a great marketing hook.” And I talked them into funding an expedition.

于是我把《阿凡达》放在了一边,我开始制作另一部有关一艘大船沉没的电影 (笑声)。你们知道,我努力将给这部电影制作成一部发生在船上的“罗密欧与朱 丽叶”似的电影。那应该是一部凄美浪漫的爱情电影。悄悄告诉你们,实际上我想 要到真正的泰坦尼克号残骸下潜水。那才是我制作这部电影的真正原因 (掌声) 那是事实,但是电影制片厂并不了解这些。但是我使他们信服了,我告诉他 们,我们要沉入海底,拍摄泰坦尼克号真实的画面。我们将把这个片段放在首映式 上展现,这将会引起很大的轰动,票房也会很好。令人意外,电影公司真的同意出 钱,支持我去探索泰坦尼克号。

Sounds crazy. But this goes back to that theme about your imagination creating a reality. Because we actually created a reality where six months later I find myself in a Russian submersible two and a half miles down in the north Atlantic, looking at the real Titanic through a view port, not a movie,not HD, for real. (Applause)

虽然到现在我仍觉得有些疯狂,但这就是“想象创造了现实”。因为我真的经 历了这种事情,六个月后我在北大西洋的一艘俄罗斯潜水艇里的海下2.5米处看到了 真正的泰坦尼克号,不是在电影中看到的,是在真实生活中看到的。

Now, that blew my mind. And it took a lot of preparation, we had to build cameras and lights and all kinds of things. But,it struck me how much this dive, these deep dives was like a space mission. You know, where it was highly technical, and it required enormous planning. You get in this capsule, you go down to this dark hostile environment where there is no hope of rescue if you can’t get back by yourself. And I thought like, “Wow. I am like living in a science fiction movie. This is really cool.”

现在,《泰坦尼克号》的拍摄体验给了我很大的震撼。虽然我们要做很多准备 工作,我们要搭建相机、灯光和许多其他设备。但令我震惊的是,这次深海拍摄就 像是一次外太空旅行。你知道,在那里拍摄电影需要尖端的技术和繁杂的计划。你 要待在船舱中,你要到黑暗的危险环境中去,如果你自己不能回来的话,连援救的 希望都没有。我当时想/啊,我好像处在科幻小说中。那真的感觉很酷。

And so, I really got bitten by the bug of deep ocean exploration. Of course, the curiosity, the science component of it. It was everything. It was adventure. It was curiosity. It was imagination- And it was an experience that Hollywood couldn’t give me. Because, you know, I could imagine a creature and we could create a visual effect for it. But I couldn’t imagine what I was seeing out that window. As we did some of our subsequent expeditions I was seeing creatures at hydrothermal vents and sometimes things that I had never seen before, sometimes things that no one had seen before, that actually were not described by science at the time that we saw them and imaged them. So, I was completely smitten by this,and had to do more. .

因此,我想我好像被深海探索这只臭虫咬了,对它着了迷。当然好奇心是深 海探索的核心部分。深海探索是一切,是冒险,是好奇,是想象,是好莱坞给不 了我的一种经历。因为,你们知道,我可以想象一个我们可以为其创造视觉效果的 事物。但是我却永远无法想象出透过潜艇窗所看到的那些生物。当我们作进一步探 险的时候,我看到了深海热泉里的生物,而且有时看到一些我之前从未看到过的生 物,任何人都未看到过的生物。我们看到它们想象它们的时候,它们还没有被科学所描述。我被震撼了,必须做更多事情。

And so, I actually made a kind of curious decision. After the success of Titanic,! said, “Okay,I’m going to park my day job as a Hollywood movie maker, and I’m going to go be a full time explorer for a while.” And so,we started planning these expeditions. And we wound up going to the Bismatk, and exploring it with robotic vehicles. We went back to the Titanic wreck. We took little bots that we had created that spooled a fiber optic. And the idea was to go in and do an interior survey of that ship, which had never been done. Nobody had ever looked inside the wreck. They didn’t have the means to do it, so we created technology to do it.

在《泰坦尼克号》成功后,我实际上作了一个古怪的决定:暂停我的主业—— 好莱坞导演,做一段时间全职探险家。于是我们开始策划一些探险。在自动探测车 帮助下,我们去了俾斯麦。我们回到了泰坦尼克号的残骸上。我们将我们创造的 “马蝇”缠在一个光纤上。我们想进到泰坦尼克号的内部对该船作进一步的研究, 这在之前从未有人做过。从没有人看过该船遗骸的内部。他们没有方法那样做,因 此我们发明了技术做这件事情。

So, you know, here I am now, on the deck of Titanic, sitting in a submersible, and looking out at planks that look much like this, where I knew that the band had played. And I’m flying a little robotic vehicle through the corridor of the ship. When I say, I’m operating it, but my mind is in the vehicle. I felt like I was physically present inside the shipwreck of Titanic. And it was the most surreal kind of deja vu experience I’ve ever had,because I would know before I turned a corner what was going to be there before the lights of the vehicle actually revealed it, because I had walked the set for months when we were making the movie. And the set was based as an exact replica on the blueprints of the ship.

于是,我现在这里,在泰坦尼克号的甲板上,从潜水艇里看着像这样的厚木 板,我知道乐队曾经在那里演奏。我乘着机器人车穿梭在残骸间。当我操纵该机器 人车时,我的思想也集中在车上。我感觉自己真的到了泰坦尼克号上,这是一种最 令人兴奋的似曾相识的感觉。因为我知道假如在这里转个弯,我将会在机器人车灯 光的照耀下看到什么。因为制作电影期间,我已经在另一个完全一样的泰坦尼克号 复制品上工作了好几个月。

So, it was this absolutely remarkable experience. And it really made me realize that the telepresense experience that you actually can have these robotic avatars, then your consciousness is injected into the vehicle, into this other form of existence. It was really quite profound. And may be a little bit of a glimpse as to what might be happening some decades out as we start to have cyboerg bodies for exploration or for other means in many sort of post-human futures that I can imagine, as a science fiction fan.

因此,这是一次不同寻常的经历。它让我感觉到,远程监控的力量,你真的可 以拥有这些机器人替身,然后你的思想全部集中在机器人车上,变成另一种形式的 存在。这种体验非常深刻。或许几十年后,当我们用半机器人探测,或者任何后人 类生物用其他手段探测时,人们会对这种感觉习以为常。这是我作为一名科学小说 迷所能想象到的事。

So, having done these expeditions, and really beginning to appreciate what was down there, such as at the deep ocean vents where we had these amazing amazing animals. They are basically aliens right here on Earth. They live in an environment of chemosynthesis. They don’t survive on sunlight based system the way we do.

在这些探险之后,我开始真正感谢这些存在于海底的生物,深海喷口处的特别 神奇的生物。基本上这些生物对于地球来说就是外星生物。它们生活在一个化学合 成的环境之中。它们无法像我们一样存活于太阳之下。

At the same time I was getting very interested in space science as well, again, it’s the science fiction influence, as a kid. And I wound up getting involved with the space community, really involved with NASA, sitting on the NASA advisory board, planning actual space missions, going to Russia, going to the pre-cosmonaut biomedical protocols, and all these sorts of things, to actually go and fly to the international space station with our 3D camera systems. And this was fascinating. But what I wound up doing was bringing space scientists with us into the deep. And taking them down so that they had access astrobiologists, planetary scientists, people who were interested in these extreme environments, and letting them see, and take samples and test instruments, and so on.

同时,从小被科幻小说影响的我对于太空科学也非常感兴趣。我激动地加入了 太空社区,进入了NASA的顾问委员会,我在咨询委员会的董事会上设计可行的航天 任务,去俄罗斯,去研究前宇航员的生物医药学协议,做类似的许多事情,带着我 们的3D电影摄像机进入太空站。这些非常有趣,但我真正想做的是把这些太空专家 带入深海,让这些对极端环境感兴趣的行星科学家和天体生物学家们有机会进入深海,让他们看看深海,取一些样本,测试下仪器等等。

So, here we were making documentary films, but actually doing science, and actually doing space science. I’d completely dosed the loop between being the science fiction fan, you know, as a kid, and doing this stuff for real.

因此,我们在做纪录片,但实际上也是在作科学研究,在作太空科学研究.如今, 我将儿时对科学小说的热爱变成了现实,这些事业将我整个人生很好地整合了起来。

And you know, along the way in this journey of discovery, I learned a lot. I learned a lot about science. But I also learned a lot about leadership. Now you think director has got to be a leader, leader of,captain of the ship,and all that sort of thing.

在发现的过程中,我学到了很多。我学到的不仅仅是科学知识,还有领导力。 很多人以为导演就必须是领导者,必须是像船长似的领导者。

I didn’t really learn about leadership until I did these expeditions. Because I had to, at a certain point, say, “What am I doing out here? Why am I doing this? What do I get out of it?” We don’t make money at these damn shows. We barely break even. There is no fame in it. People sort of think I went away after Titanic and Avatar sitting at the beach. Made all these films, made all these documentary films for a very limited audience.

但我之前从未学过领导力直到做了这次冒险后。因为在某种程度上说我不得不 这样做。在探险时,有时候我会问自己,我正在这里干什么?为什么要做这些事? 我从中得到了什么?我们并没有从这些纪录片中赚钱,还差点亏了本。我也没有 赚到名声。很多人以为我在《泰坦尼克号》和《阿凡达》之后就一直躺在沙滩边享 受。我制作的这些电影和纪录片的观众非常有限。

No fame, no glory, no money. What are you doing? You’re doing it for the task itself, for the challengeand the ocean is the most challenging environment there is, for the thrill of discovery, and for that strange bond that happens when a small group of people form a tightly knit team. Because we would do these things with 10-12 people working for years at a time. Sometimes at sea for 2-3 months at a time.

没有名声,没有荣耀,没有金钱,那我在做什么呢?你做这些其实只是为了任 务本身。为了挑战——海洋是现存最具有挑战性的环境;为了激动人心的发现;为 了来自一个由少数人组成的紧密团队间的微妙关系。我们这10到12个人在一起工作 了很多年。有时要在海里一起工作2到3个月。

And in that bond, you realize that the most important thing is the respect that you have for them and that they have for you, that you’ve done a task that you can’t explain to someone else. When you come back to the shore and you say, We had to do this, and the fiber optic, and all the technology of it, and the difficulty, the human performance aspects of working at sea, you can’t explain it to people. It’s that thing that maybe cops have, or people in combat that have gone through something together and they know they can never explain it. Creates a bond, creates a bond of respect-

在这种关系中,你会发现最重要的东西就是彼此之间的尊重。每个人做的工作 都无法向其他人解释。当你回到海岸后说“我们不得不这样做,光纤怎样,技术怎 样,有什么样的困难,人们在海下的工作效率怎样,所有的这些,你无法向人们解 释。那样的事情或许发生在警察身上,又或许一起并肩作战的战友能体会到,但是 他们也永远无法解释。创建一种关系就要维系一种尊重。

So, when I came back to make my next movie, which was “Avatar,” I tried to apply that same principle of leadership which is that you respect your team, and you earn their respect in return. And it really changed the dynamic. So, here I was again with a small team, in uncharted territory doing Avatar, coming up with new technology that didn’t exist before. Tremendously exciting. Tremendously challenging. And we became a family, over a four and half year period. And it completely changed how I do movies. So,people have commented on how, well, you know, you brought back the ocean organisms and put them on the planet of Pandora. To me it was more of a fundamental way of doing business, the process itself, that changed as a result of that.

因此,当我回来创作我的下一步作品《阿凡达》时,我试着将这种领导力应 用在电影拍摄中。这种领导力就是你尊重你的团队,你的团队也会尊重你作为对你 的回报。很快情况就发生了改变。在《阿凡达》拍摄过程中,我的团.队也很小,也 在未知领地工作,创造之前从来没有过的新科技。这非常激动人心,非常具有挑战 性。四年半时间,我们成为了一个家庭。这完全改变了我以前拍电影的方式。有评 论文章说,卡梅隆把海底的一些生物放到了潘多拉星球上是其影片成功的原因,而 对于我来说,是做事的基本法则以及过程本身改变了事情的结果。

So, what can we synthesize out of all this? You know, what are the lessons learned? Well, I think number one is curiosity. It’s the most powerful thing you own. Imagination is a force that can actually manifest a reality. And the respect of your team is more important than all the laurels in the world. I have young film makers come up to me and say, “Give me some advice for doing this.55 And I say, “Don’t put limitations on yourself. Other people will do that for you, don’t do it yourself, don’t bet against yourself. And take risks.”

因此,我们从这一切中可以总结出什么呢?我们学到了什么呢?我想第一:好奇心,这是你拥有的最强有力的东西;第二:想象力,这是你创造现实最重要的力 量;第三:对团队的尊重,这是比世界上其他定律更重要的定律。有不少年轻电影 导演就某件事情询问我的意见。我对他们说:“不要给自己划定界限。别人会为你 去划界限,但你自己千万别去。不要_自己打赌,要去冒险。

NASA has this phrase that they like: “Failure is not an option.” But failure has to be an option in art and in exploration, because it’s a leap of faith. And no important endeavor that required innovation was done without risk. You have to be willing to take those risks. So, that’s the thought I would leave you with,is that in whatever you’re doing, failure is an option, but fear is not. Thank you.

美国宇航局有句他们很喜欢的话:失败不是一种选择。但是失败在艺术和探索 领域不得不是一种选择。因为那是信仰的飞跃。而且没有不需要冒险但需要创新的 工作。你必须心甘情愿的去冒险。因此,不管你们做什么,我想让你们懂得的是: 失败是其中一个选项,但畏惧不是。谢谢。

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